Trial home to 6.2 % of the world’s

Trial policy paper


Executive summary

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About the disease


The global health burden scale of HIV remains to be major, with
the disease claiming more than 35 million lives so far. The death toll remains
high with 1.0 million HIV related deaths reported globally in 2016 (WHO).


The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attacks the immune
system and weakens the body’s natural defense against illness. The person gradually
becomes immunodeficient as the virus destroys and impairs the function of a
type of white blood cell (CD4 cell) in the immune system. This makes the
individual susceptible the range of infections and diseases which a normal
healthy person can fight off. If HIV is left untreated, in 2-15 years it
progresses to more advanced stage of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS),
which is development of certain cancers, infections, or other severe clinical manifestations.


As at the end of 2016, there are 36.7 million people living
with HIV with newly infected cases in 2016 globally tolling up to 1.8 million


With 25.6 million people living with HIV in Africa, it is the
most affected region, where almost two third of the new cases reported in 2016
were from this region.


The East
and Southern African region, home to 6.2 % of the world’s population, is the
most severely hit by HIV since it has 19.4 million people living with HIV which
accounts to over 50% of the total number of people living with HIV in the
world. In 2016, there were 790,000 new HIV infections, 43% of the global total
and South Africa accounted
for one third of the region’s new infections. South
Africa has the largest HIV epidemic in the world, with 19% of the global number
of people living with HIV, 15% of new infections and 11% of AIDS related


The vision of ending the epidemic
of HIV is one of the main vision of the UNAIDS which can be realized through
the guidelines of the Sustainable Developmental Goals.



AIDS and Sustainable
development goals


Post the Millennium development goals (MDGs), the member
countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development and with it the
MDGs were replaced by the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) the SDGs or
the Global Goals which act as a guide for all countries to foster and promote economic
and social growth whilst protecting the planet.


The three MDGs related to health were replaced by the all-encompassing
health goal*, that is Goal
3: Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages.

This includes universal access to all HIV prevention,
treatment, and drug harm reduction services.#

The main targets of the SDG3 is the complete eradication of
epidemics by 2030, which includes ending the AIDS epidemic. Another target that
comes under the SDG3 is the universal access to quality health services and
health coverage, medicines and vaccines for every individual. Efforts to end
AIDS will also invariably impact the other health targets that includes reducing maternal mortality
(target 3.1), preventing deaths of newborns and children under the age of 5
years (target 3.2), reducing mortality from noncommunicable diseases and
promoting mental health (target 3.4), preventing

treating substance use disorders (target 3.5), sexual and reproductive health
(target 3.7), achieving universal health coverage (target 3.8), access to
affordable medicines and vaccines (target 3.b) and health enhancing and health
workforce (target 3.c). In addition to its impact on Goal 3, ending the AIDS
epidemic will contribute to ending poverty (Goal 1), ending hunger (Goal 2), achieving
gender equality and empowering women and girls
(Goal 5), reducing inequality in access to services and commodities (Goal 10),
promoting inclusive societies (WHO 2016-2021)
that promote non-discrimination (Goal 16), and financing and capacity building
for implementation (Goal 17). UNAIDS STRATEGY


International organizations such as UNAIDS have a key role in
the advocacy of the set targets by the SDGS and the indicators set as a measure
to check progress. The advocacy role that the organization plays motions the
governments to work towards the 2030 targets and imbibe strategic plans in
their national policies to realize them. (AVERT)


Since its inception and workings from 1996, the UNAIDS is a
forerunner in the global efforts undertaken in a bid to achieve its shared
vision of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related is also leading in the effort to end the public health threat through
HIVAIDS by 2030, as necessitated by the SDG.


UNAIDS Fast-Track
strategy ?

To meet the SDG target of ending AIDS by 2030 by the countries,
The UNAIDS Fast-Track strategy has charted plans to scale up the HIV response
in low- and middle-income countries % this is specially made to prevent the outrun of the epidemic from
the response. The strategy sets out the 90-90-90 targets for prevention and
treatment which includes reduction of HIV incidence to less than 200,000 by
2030 to end the public health threat.

90-90-90 targets involves the pathway of testing of HIV, care
and treatment of the cases and adherence of the patient to antiretroviral drugs
(ARVs). It mainly includes

90% people aware of their HIV, status of which

90% are on HIV treatment, of which

90% virally suppressed.

This will result to 30 million people on treatment resulting to
fewer than 500,000 new HIV infections. (UNAIDS). In support of the targets,
universal health care coverage for the population is advised irrespective of
hbcedg (finding) of the disease finding or CD4 count (WHO 2014)

 A rights-based approach
that is people centered for the delivery of the five prevention measures is
needed to achieve the UNAIDS targets.

The five prevention

The fast track target