TYPES crust · Sometimes mined for use as

TYPES OF ROCKSIGNEOUS ROCKS – are formed from the solidification of magma, which is a hot (600 to 1,300 °c,or 1,100 to 2,400 °f) molten or partially molten rock material. The earthis composed predominantly of a large mass of igneous rock with a very thinveneer of weathered material. Examples of igneous rocks:Granite – “the best-known igneous rock”            Location: ·       Found at earth’s surface·      Stonemountain, Georgia; Yosemite Valley, California; Mount Rushmore,South Dakota; Pike’s Peak, Colorado; and white mountains, New Hampshire.

 Composition:·      Forms from the crystallization of magma·      Composed mostly of quartz and feldspar with someamounts of other minerals·      A red, pink, gray, or white color with dark mineralgrains visible throughout the rock·      Has large grains that can be seen by humans’ nakedeye·      A light-colored igneous rock Strengths :·      Ishard enough to resist most abrasion·      Strongenough to bear heavy loads·      Goodenough to overcome weathering and can be brilliantly polished·      Needs to be sealed once every once in two years ·        Aesthetics: ·      When polished, granite can be truly appealing ·      Stain resistant and scratch-proof·      Comes with some great antimicrobial qualities·      Since granite was composed of different minerals, the colors mixeduniquely on its appearance Uses:·      Rough-cut or polished granite is com monlyused in buildings (interior & exterior), bridges, paving, & monuments·      Polished granite can be cut into slabs and tilesand are used in countertops, tile floors, stair treads Diorite – a composition between that of granite and basalt            Location: ·      New Zealand Occurrences – Northland, Coromandel Peninsula, West Nelson area,Fiordland, Stewart Island Composition: ·      Mineral content – plagioclase, amphibole (hornblende) and pyroxene ·      Silica content – 52%-63% Strengths :·      Durability is like that of granite·      Was used as a structural stone by the Inca and Mayancivilizations of South America·      Difficultto sculpt because of its hardness, variable composition, and coarse grain size·      Itis not a favored stone of sculptors Aesthetics:·      Hasthe ability to accept a bright polish, and it has occasionally been cut intocabochons or used as a gemstone Uses: ·      Occurs as large intrusions, dikes, and sills withincontinental crust ·      Sometimes mined for use as a crushed stone·      Used as a base material in the construction ofroads, buildings, and parking areas·      Used as construction stone; when polished, could beused as architectural stone·      Can be sold as a “granite.”  Basalt – “fine-grained rock”           Location:·      Most areas within earth’s ocean basins are coveredby basalt·      Basalt are abundant in the Hawaiian Islands·      Klamath mountains of northern California and Southern Oregon·      Common in some parts of Germany and occur in the United States (as in NewMexico) and in Libya, turkey, and elsewhere·      Leucite-basalts are found in Italy, Germany, Eastern Africa, Australia,and in the United States Composition:·      Has a similar comparison to gabbro·      Composed mostly of plagioclase and pyroxeneminerals·      Mineral content – groundmass generally of pyroxene (augite), plagioclaseand olivine, possibly with minor glass·      Silica (sio2) content – 45%-52%.Strengths &weaknesses:·      Earth’s most abundant bedrock·      Poor shear strength Aesthetics:·      Color – dark grey to black·      Texture – aphanitic (can be porphyritic) ·      Some basalts are quite glassy (tachylytes), and many are veryfine-grained and compactUses:·      Mostcommonly crushed for use as an aggregate in construction projects·      Crushed basalt is used for road base, concrete aggregate, asphaltpavement aggregate, railroad ballast, filter stone in drain fields, and mayother purposes·      Alsocut into dimension stone·      Thin slabs of basalt are cut and sometimes polished for use as floortiles, building veneer, monuments, and other stone objects METAMORPHIC ROCKS – have beenmodified by heat, pressure, and chemical processes, usually while buried deepbelow earth’s surfaceMarble – forms when limestone is subjected to the heat and pressure of metamorphism               Location:·      Italy,China, India and Spain Composition:·      Mostlycomposed of the calcite mineraland contains some other minerals, such as clay, micas, quartz, graphite, and pyrite Strengths &weaknesses:·       Easy to carve, and that makesit useful for producing sculptures and ornamental objects·       Has a hardness of three onthe Mohs hardness scale.Aesthetics:·       Usually a light-colored rock·       The translucence of marble makes it attractivefor many types of sculptures·       Can be polished into abrilliant shineUses: ·       Most marble is made intoeither crushed stone or dimension stone·       Used as an aggregate inhighways, railroad beds, building foundations, and other types of construction·       Used as floor tiles, architecturalpanels, facing stone, window sills, stair treads, columns, and many otherpieces of decorative stone·       Used in monuments, buildings,sculptures, paving and other projects Slate – a fine-grained, foliatedmetamorphic rock that is created by the alteration of shale or mudstone bylow-grade regional metamorphism              Location:·      Bestslate is said to come from certain countries such as brazil and the UnitedKingdom Composition:·      Composedmostly of clay minerals or micas·      Can also contain abundant quartz and small amounts of feldspar, calcite,pyrite, hematite Strengths &weaknesses:·      Standsup well in contact with freezing water·      Adisadvantage is the cost of the slate and its installation in comparison withother roofing materials·      Best material for roofing Aesthetics:·       Gray in color and range in acontinuum of shades from light to dark gray·       Also occurs in shades of green, red, black, purple, and brownUses:·      Alsoused for interior flooring, exterior paving, dimension stone, and decorativeaggregate·      Roof tiles Quartzite – a non-foliated metamorphic rock    Location:·       Forms duringmountain-building events at convergent plate boundaries·       Is in folded mountain rangesthroughout the world Composition:·      Composedalmost entirely of quartz Strengths &weaknesses:·      Givesit a hardness of about seven on the mohs hardness scale·      Mostphysically durable and chemically resistant rocks found at earth’s surface·      Resistantto most chemicals and environmental conditions·      Apoor soil-former·      Its hardness and toughness cause heavy wear on crushers, screens, truckbeds, and cutting equipment Aesthetics:·       Usually white to gray incolor·       Can be a very attractivestone when it is colored by inclusionsUses: ·       Used in stair treads, floortiles, and countertops·       Decorative purposesSEDIMENTARY ROCKS-formed by the deposition andsubsequent cementation of that material at the earth’s surface and withinbodies of water Shale – a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from thecompaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles that we commonly call”mud”              Location:·      Can be found almost everywhere on earth’s surface  Composition:·      Composedmainly of clay-size mineral grains·      Usually contains other clay-size mineral particles such as quartz andfeldspar Strengths :·       The rock most oftenassociated with landslides·      Has a very low shear strength – especially when wet·      Soft enough to becut with a knife and can be very brittle Aesthetics:·       Usually gray to black incolor due to organic minerals present·       Can be of different colors(red, brown, yellow, green) Uses:·      Used to produce cement·      Used to produce clay Sandstone – a sedimentary rockcomposed of sand-size grains of mineral, rock, or organic material                        Location:·      Foundin sedimentary basins throughout the world Composition:·      Containsa cementing material that binds the sand grains together·      Grainsof sand in a sandstone are usually particles of mineral Strengths :·      Durable·      Affordable·      Waterabsorption is very higher than other stone materials ·       Surface will get scratchesand dents over a period of time·       sandstonetiles are that its soft compared to granite Aesthetics:·       Often multicolored stone; areperfect for decorative touch·       Colors, patterns, and huesfound in any individual piece are completely unique and differentUses:·      Used as a construction material·       Often serves as an aquiferfor groundwater or as a reservoir for oil and natural gas·      Usedas a raw material in manufacturing  Limestone – an organic sedimentary rockthat forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal, and fecal debrisLocation:·      Canbe found in the Caribbean Sea, Indian ocean, Persian gulf, gulf of Mexico,around Pacific Ocean islands, and within the Indonesian archipelago Composition:·      Composedprimarily of calcium carbonate Strengths :·      Limestone quarries are visible from long distances and may permanentlydisfigure the local environment·      Used to make things such as glass and concrete·      Somekinds of limestone are strong, dense rocks with few pore spaces·      Standsup well to abrasion and freeze-thaw·      Easier to mine and does not exert the same level of wear on miningequipment·      Doesnot perform as well in these uses as some of the harder silicate rocks·       littlemaintenance Aesthetics:·       Can be a beautiful flooring Uses:·      Mostly made into crushed stone and used as a construction material·      Usedfor road base and railroad ballast·      Usedas an aggregate in concrete·      Dimension stone·      Roofing granules·      Portland cement References:https://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/rocks_minerals/rocks/diorite.htmlhttps://geology.com/rocks/granite.shtmlhttp://midlandmarble.com/strength-beauty-curling-uses-granite-stones/https://geology.com/rocks/diorite.shtmlhttps://geology.com/rocks/basalt.shtmlhttps://www.britannica.com/science/basalthttps://www.surreymarbleandgranite.co.uk/where-does-marble-come-from/https://geology.com/rocks/marble.shtmlhttps://geology.com/rocks/slate.shtmlhttps://geology.com/rocks/quartzite.shtmlhttp://www.softschools.com/facts/geology/slate_facts/389/https://www.wfm.co.in/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-marble/https://geology.com/rocks/limestone.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/limestone/calciumcarbonaterev4.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/limestone/calciumcarbonaterev4.shtmlhttps://www.limestone.com/about-us/limestone-learning-center/limestone-through-the-years/https://geology.com/rocks/sandstone.shtmlhttps://www.slideshare.net/lubiananas/advantages-disadvantages-durability-and-maintenance-of-sandstonehttp://amstonemasons.com.au/the-benefits-of-using-sandstone-materials-for-construction.htmlhttps://www.thespruce.com/sandstone-flooring-pros-and-cons-1314704