Victorian Era Poetry

“to dying ears, when unto dying eyesThe casement slowly grows a glimmering square”
Tears, Idle Tears (Tennyson) the birds are chirping and the dying people are listening, they can see the light but cannot harvest it. this line is fallowed by “so sad, so strange, the days that are no more.”

“O Death in life, the days that are no more!”
Tears, Idle Tears (Tennyson) sadness is like bringing death into life, the past is dear, sweet, and wild, and there is hope for the future. **

“On lips that are for others; deep as love, deep as first love, and wild with all regret;”
Tears, Idle Tears (Tennyson) he remembers his first love..


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“Tears from the depth of some *divine despair*.. I am looking on the happy autumn fields and thinking of the days that are no more”
Tears idle tears (Tennyson) remembers the pain of the past, sad that the summer is gone and that autumn has approached, “looking backwards” the fields are happy, yet that the says are gone is sad. ‘divine despair’= could be alluding to the fall of adam and eve

“so fold thyself, my dearest, thou, and slip into my bosom and be lost in me”
Now Sleeps the Crimson Petal (Tennyson) Repetition of “now (verb)… (with/onto/in) me” He is saying, so open up to me, and let’s be together.

he was emotional AND physical love. Compares her beauty to nature (romantic) and he objects to materialism. **

” the firefly wakens, waken thou with me. now droops the milk-white peacock like a ghost”
Now Sleeps the Crimson Petal (Tennyson) he is not driven by material love, he asks her love to wake up with him, it is very pure.

Compares her to nature (romantic). The white peacock is white like marriage and purity, and his lover haunts him like a ghost but in a loving way. The meteor metaphor fallows this, which talks about how her love is everlasting.

“But O for the touch of a vanished hand, and the sound of a voice that is still!”
Break, Break, Break (Tennyson) this elegy/apostrophe to the sea is a mournful hymn where the speaker is able to observe but not participate after having gone through a personal loss. (“) he will never be able to spend time with his friend again, he is gone forever.

how is it that life keeps on going even though this person is dead?

“But the tender grace of a day that is dead Will never come back to me.”
Break, Break, Break (Tennyson) he will never see his friend again. His friend will never return. He can accept this and stop looking to the past. **

“Now the earth lies, all danae to the stars”
Now sleeps the Crimson Petal (Tennyson) as earth is open to Zeus’s gold, he is open to her love.

“i hope to see my Pilot face to face”
Crossing the Bar (Tennyson) The pilot is G-d, he hopes to be joined with religion when he dies. he is accepting death, find something about death to look forward to. The passive approach to dealing with the hard subject of death is prudery.

“and may there be no sadness of farewell when i embark”
Crossing the Bar (Tennyson) dont cry for me when i die….

(rest of poem: the sunset is calling him, and he doesnt want people to cry and hopes the ocean wont mourn as he goes off and dies. the tide seems asleap, and is boundless deep, boundry of time and place,let the flood bear him far, and see the pilot face to face)

“i am half sick of shadows”
The Lady of Shalot (Tennyson) she doesnt want to look at the world through a mirror, want to interact.

“Since none puts by the cutain i have drawn for you, but i”
My Last Duchess (Robert Browning) he is all powerful over her, he is stronger, male dominence.

“was courtesy she thought, and was cause enough for calling up that spot of joy”
My Last Duchess (Robert Browning) she flirts too much and smiles, decorum of courtesy, but it makes her smile and blush, spot of joy is her blushing. she was too soon made glad, all about prudery..

her bough of cherries etc. His nine hundred year old name = materialism and decorum.

“e’en then would be stooping and i choose never to stoop”
My Last Duchess (Browning) decorum

“I gave commands then all smiles stopped together”
My Last Duchess (Browning) kills her

“from pride, and vainer ties diseaver and give herself to me forever” “for her love, all in vain”
Porphyria’s lover (browning) she succumbs to society)

“in that moment she was mine, mine, fair, perfectly pure and good”
Porphyrias lover (browing) to maintain her in that moment, where she adors him, he kills her.

“That all it scorned at once is fled and i, its love, am gained instead”
Porphyrias lover (browning) tais

“And yet god has not said a word”
Porphyrias lover (browning) aygh

“a shut bud that holds a bee, laughed the blue eyes without a stain”
Porphyrias lover (browning) asbth

“and a voice less loud, thro’ its joys and fears, then two hearts beating each to each.”
Meeting at Night (Browning) The voice isn’t as loud as their loving hearts beating together.

Meeting at Night
Browning. -describes landscape, grey seam moon rising and setting- black land = meeting at night, waves are firey, -“gains the cove” with pushing prow, quench speed into slushy sand-warm sea scented-and walk until a farm appears-sharp skratch like a match-lovers heart beats.****Theme: overcoming nature, isnt prude, but supports brownings idea of fallowing the heart, even if radical. Preserve for the sake of his love.

“and strait was a path of gold for him, and the need of a world of men for me.”
Parting at Morning (Browning) recieves pleasure, he gave up the world for her beauty, but now he wants to return to a “world of men” which is like the theme of male dominance, and also industrialization. he missed humanity. *Him= the sun.

“round the cape of a sudden came the sea, and the sun looked over the mountains rim”
Parting at Morning (Browning) man realizes he isnt in love with her, he got what he wants and returns to the world.

“Fear death? to feel the fog in my throaght, the mist in my face”
Prospice (which means: looking forward) (browning) fd?tftf

“i am nearing near the place”
Prospice (browning) ianntp

“yet the stronger man must go”
Prospice (browning) ytsmmg

“The best and the last.. for sudden, the worst turns the best into the brave”
Prospice (browning) romantic goal of being remembered.

when times are bad, you must be brave.

“i would hate death bandaged my eyes and forbore, and made me creep past”
Prospice (browning) looking forward, the fear of death shouldnt controll his life, he should move on and live. enjoy the time he has with his friends.

“oh soul of my soul, i shall clasp thee again”
Prospice (browning) he is reffering to Elizabeth, his love.

live his life so death isnt scary, he will clasp her again when he dies, so enjoy it while he lives, and dont worry about her because he will see her again.

“shall become peace out of pain, then a light, then thy breat”
Prospice (browning) sbpoop

Browning -mist is like a metaphore, things he cant define, disorienting-he nears a place, powerful night-death “arch fear” is in a visible form-strong men die, the journey is attained (everyoen dies, life is complete)-barriers fall, battles fight, guerdon= reward, is gained-he faught, fight one more, best and last, will be remembered-lets him taste his old friends and be like the heroes, remebered*-face black minutes end, and be reembered, them a light, will be with his souls of sould elizabeth again soon.

“i love thee with the passion put to use, in my old griefs, and with my childhoods faith.”
Sonnets from the Portuguese (Elizabeth Browning) loves with the same amount of passion that is put into pain, or the same faith that one has as a child. theme: loss of inoccence and faith

“and if god choose, i shall love thee after death”
Sonnets from the portuguese (e.

Browning) she will love him after death and forever.

Dover Beach****
Arnold-sea is calm, french v. england=war-gleams is gone= loss of faith-sea meets moon blanched sand, eroding it over time, listen to it grating, the pebbles fliging.-sadness of nature destroying itself-sophoclese heard human misery and we hear is now even if different time and place, hear it in the northern sea. -*Sea of faith: religion is pure and believable-but now it is meloncoly, retreating, and naked shigles of the world= loss of faith, religion is declined. religionless=naked. doubtful world-asks love to let us love eachother, the earth is like a land of dreams, no new etc-but it really doesnt have joy or love or light, or peace.

-**so ignorant armies clash. we hear the scary armies figh= ignorance of society*** ocean= human existance-materialism, lack of faith

“Begin, cease, then begin again, with tremendouse cadence slow, and bring the eternal note of sadness in”
Dover Beach (Arnold) sadness of nature destroying itself. ocean= human existance.

“hath really no love, nor light, joy…”(not actual quote..


Dover beach (Arnold) there isnt really love and light etc, everything is bad. the sea of faith is gone, everything is meloncoly.

“Where ignorant armies clash by night”
Dover Beach (Arnold) IGNORANCE OF SOCIETY. paradox of progress

“naked shingles” “distant northern sea” “french english coast” “eternal note of sadness”
Dover Beach (Arnold) bunch of key words.. oUter world is contrasted with inner world

“strew on her roses, and never a spray of yew”
Rquiescat (Arnold) latin for: “May she rest” outer world is contrasted with inner world. she is in her grave

“her mirth the world required..

. now they let her be”

Rquiescat (Arnold) latin for: “May she rest” outer world is contrasted with inner world. she had to fake smiles and pretend to be what she isnt, indifference of society, they didnt care about her inside. she was yearning for peace as her life was turning.

“tonight it doth inherit, the vasty hall of death”
Requiscat (arnold) latin for “may she rest” she was trying to find a way out, and now she is dead. indifference of society, troubled soul finally dies.

“we mortal millions live alone, the islands feel their enclasping flow, and thier endless bounds they know”
To Marguerite Continued (Arnold) Compares humans to islands, alone and isolated.

To Marguarite Continued
Arnold-sea of life is made into seperate islands, dotting the shores watery wild-we live alone-moon hallows light, we are swept by spring, the nightengales sing, from shore to shore, connecting us. -longing like despair is to the longest caves sent, they want to feel like one continent, to have the same pain as other people. -let our marges meet again!-should we be as soon as kindled cooled, who renders vain their deep desire?- connected and taken apart again-g-d does, g-d ends the relationship between people. wants a more religious time. -betwix shores to be unexplored, salt estranging sea.

“the nightinggales divinely sing, and lovely notes from shore to shore”
To marguarite continued (arnold) the nightinggales contect us, nature connects the lonely human.

“a g-d, a g-d their severance ruled”
To marguarite continued (arnold) g-d ends the relationship between people. (maybe like death) man is alone.

“for surely once, they feel, were part of a single continent”
To marguarite continued (arnold) faith had them feeling like they were all together, but now everything is falling apart, and man is lonely. Pangea

“ah as the heart grows older, it will come to such sights colder”
Spring and Fall: to a young child. (Hopkins) adresses margaret, with age (experience) you will lose your innocence.

“leaves, like the things of man, you with your fresh thoughts care for, can you?”
Spring and Fall: to a young child. (Hopkins) can you care for leaves like you care for the things of man? materialism, and nature.

“no matter, child, the name: sorrows springs are the same”
Spring and Fall: to a young child. (Hopkins) with experience you will know why you weep, you will understand it. knowing sadness with be the same as your childhoods grief.

what your mouth and mind cannot express, you will eventually be able to.

“it is the blight man was born for, it is margaret you mourn for”
Spring and Fall: to a young child. (Hopkins) blight= ugly, neclected. marguaret mourns for her own morality.

paradox of progress, as she gets older= the world is worse. materialism. g-d’s intentions. **intelectual progress** goldengrove= spot of time. loss of inoccence. questioning life and mortality.

“fresh firecoal chestnut falls, finches wings, landscape plotted”
Pied Beauty (Hopkins) contrast of different things “dappled things” all made by g-d, this is a jab at evolution (darwins finches)

“all things counter, original, spare, strange, whatever is fickle, freckled who knows?”
Pied Beauty (Hopkins) who knows who made all the different things.

anti thesis= line nine .

“he fathers forth whose beauty is past change, Praise him.”
Pied Beauty (Hopkins) Praise god for “fathering forth” (creating) everything. contrast of the pied beauty of the physical world, and the beauty of the creator who is past change.

“and all mankind haunted night had sought their household fires.”
The Darkling Thrush (Hardy) man because of the industrial rev people are like gohsts and go to their fires at night.

“the century’s corpse outleant”
The Darkling Thrush (Hardy) the land embodies the century, everything is dead.

nature conspires to mourning the passing of the century. -outer world manifests emotion.

“and every spirit upon earth deemed fervourless as i”
The Darkling Thrush (Hardy) people are like ghosts. fervourless and dry due to the industrial revolution.

“an aged thrush, frial, gaunt, and small…chosen to flung his soul upon the growing gloom”
The Darkling Thrush (Hardy) the small little bird makes a big impact and is happy in the really sad time.

the bird can sing in it’s frail state.

“so litttle cause for carrolings, was writte n on terestrial things, that i could think their trembled through”
The Darkling Thrush (Hardy) in sch a sad time, a happy thing was made. the bird sang a happy song regardless. nature gives him his change of heart.

“some blessed hope, whereof he know, and i was unaware”
The Darkling Thrush (Hardy). he thinks the bird is hapy, he wants to believe in good but cant escape the “now” (looking forward and back) he hopes that the song is a good one, but he cant know forsure, he is unaware.

(maybe like the indifference of society)

“we thought it was our judgement day”
Channel Firing (Hardy) transendentalism, judgement day. the skeletons are awakened by guns. worms draw back etc.

“all nations striving to make red war redder”
Channel Firing (Hardy) make war worse, indifference? the dead can’t be religios, already dead.

the alive ones need to be christians more than the dead do. doing things in “christs sake”

“it will be warmer when i blow the trumpet, for you are men and rest eternal sorely needed”
Channel Firing (Hardy) g-d is speaking. trumpet=end of the world. transcendentalism.

god’s judgment day is hotter than hell, eternal rest is more suited for human condition. will the world ever be sane?

“than when he sent us under in our indifferent century” **
Channel Firing (Hardy) indiffernce of society.

“as far inland as camelot, souton tower, adn stone henge”
Channel Firing (Hardy) parson regrets preaching fourty years, he hasnt made a difference. and the guns can be heard far away and into the past.

the past ocntinues, paradox of progress.

“the mouse let fall the altar crumb”
Channel Firing (Hardy) random quote.

“in a solidtude of the sea, deep from human vanity”
The Convergence of the Twain: lines on the loss of the titanic (Hardy) far from human vanity is the titanic.

“over mirors meant, to glass opulent. The seaworm crawls- grotesque, dumb, indifferent”
The Convergence of the Twain: lines on the loss of the titanic (Hardy) =vanity of materialism. indifference of society. shows lifestyle of the rich titanic riders.

“all their sparkles bleared black and blind”
The Convergence of the Twain: lines on the loss of the titanic (Hardy) purposeless sparkles.

materialism means nothing.

“this creature of cleaving wing, the immanent will that stirs and urges everything.”
The Convergence of the Twain: lines on the loss of the titanic (Hardy) ship was built for material purposes, the imminent will created its destiny for failure. it was the ships destiny to converge with the “sinister mate”- iceburg.

“alien they seemed to be, no mortal eye could see. the intimate welding of their later history.” **
The Convergence of the Twain: lines on the loss of the titanic (Hardy) the material ship and the natural iceburg were so different, that ignorance and the lack of thought never gave the idea that they would crash.

the two hemispheres come together. nature, not technology prevails.*****

“to equal among human kind, a dog’s fidelity”
Ah, are you digging on my grave? (Thomas Hardy) a dog is more trustworthy and caring than humans

“and why uprose to nightly view strange stars amid the gloam”
Drummer Hodge (Hardy) used ideals of materialism t so does no tunderstand the areas of society.

Drummer Hodge
Hardy-innocence, unframiliar stars cross sky= place he doesnt know. -never experienced life of batttle in england- indifference/ignorance-naive and didnt understand where he was-used ideals of materialism t so does no tunderstand the areas of society. -he will always remain in africa-homely spirit.

he will disinigrate and then fertilize trees. -the stars that were over him in life will continue to carry on.

“and strange-eyed constellations reign his stars eternally”
Drummer Hodge (Hardy) stars will continue after his death

“give crowns and pounds and guineas but not your heart away”
When i was One and Twenty. (A.E. houseman) love is more important than money

“the heart out of the bosom was never given in vain. “
When i was One and Twenty. (A.

E. houseman) your heart can be ripped out, love is painful. you never sell your soul.

“tis paid with sighs a plenty, and sold for endless rue”
When i was One and Twenty.

(A.E. Housman)he sold his soul, and it is painful. he is experienced now, and knows love sucks. paradox of progress, as he gets older ,things get worse. fidn out about pain of love.

“for golden friends i had, for many rose liped maiden and many a lightfoot lad”
With rue my heart is laden (A. E. Housman) loss of innocence symbolized through death. golden friends die. golden like the old people.

“by brooks to broad for leaping, the lightfoot boys are laid”
With rue my heart is laden (A. E. Housman) loss of innocence.

cannot reach other side. leap= pass abruptly like life to death. brook:to enjoy. enjoying life is over.

“rose lipped girls are sleeping in fields where roses fade”
With rue my heart is laden (A. E.

Housman) loss of innocence. death of flowers, using nature as a metaphore. death, and loss of innocence. (white rose= innocence)

“and winterfalls of old are with me from the past”
The Night is Freezing Fast (A.

E. housman) remembers how he hates winter, and remembers the past winters.

“fall winter, fall for he promp hand and headpiece clever”
The Night is Freezing Fast (A. E.

housman) affectionate approval of dick and genial ammusement at him. dick is clever and cheats the cold from bothering him. bu the does it by dying.

“his overcoat forever, and wears the turning globe”
the night is freezing fast, houseman.

-understatement results in an intense feeling. death is cheated of its power to cause grief. he finds saftey in nature, and has strong feelings about death.

“amd wish my friend as sound a sleep as lads i did not know”
On Moonlit Heath and Lonesome Bank (A.E. Houseman) wants him to sleep well even like people he doesnt know.

indifference of society to just let him die. paradox of progress, same as it was. loss of innocence, will die even though not guilty.

On moonlit heath and lonesome bank
AE Houseman-lonesome epty place, man with sheep watches, death is approaching. will be capitally punihsed-he was a “better lad” :innocent. -god didnt mean for him to be executed, he was innocent. -g-d made the noose for someone else.

-link of life will snap, hewill hang dead. hears stroke of eight, not nine. -sleep like people he doesnt know-shepard moonlit sheep. indifference of society.

paradox of progress. loss of innocence.

(POET) wrote with his brother, studied at cambridge, part of the ‘aposles’ group that studied poetry. death of friend: hallam= in memoriam. His plays made him rich, Idylls*
Tennyson. “poems by two brothers”. poet

(POET) wrote to all people, connects to all people, wrote about how to respond to death and loss, disorder of love, old age, he challenged political standards and moral authority.

everything was part of g-d’s plan, all losses will be made good.

Tennyson: his style, what he wrote about. poet

(POET)famous for essays on lierary and social critisism. reflects on victorian society and what it would come to, what it has lost.

he was the professot of poetry at oxford. Wrote “essays in critisism”

Arnold. what he wrote. poet

(POET) warned about technological and political changes wuld accelerate a materialistic democracy. he has a conversational tone
Arnold. warning poet

(POET) first book about the development of a poet under alternative names,.

wide range in music and insects. his idol was SHelly. published pamphlets.

moral meaning of experience, and gave clues to the reader.

Robert Browning. idol etc poet

(POET)”only by acting boldly can one swert that is good from the pettiness and selfishness that obscures the good in an imperfect world” he emphasized error and weakness and difficulties characters face. harsh language. dramatic monolougues.
Robert Browning. “” poet

“i was ever a fighter”
Prospice (Robert Browning) that if by acting boldly can one wrest what is good from the pettyness and selfishness that obscures the good in an imperfect world.

liked to see himself in stenuouse but joyous constest with difficulties. he emphasized error etc. poet

(POET) initmate and autobiographical poems. semi-invalid. intellectual, religious, and political matters. translated greek plays.
Elizabeth browning.


(POET) wrote in sprung rythm to imitate natural speach. accents or stresses alone. “terrible sonnets”. like romantic poets and wrote about transendentalism. wrote about doubts and spiritual anguish. he is a priest.
Hopkins. poet

(POET) aprentice to an architect.

belief in a world governed by chance and natural laws that are not hostile, but simply indifferent to what humans want and deserve. life is determined by coincidence.

Thomas Hardy. poet

(POET) big scenes of novels against powerful backdrops of powerful nature forces that take no account of human life. indifference of nature, humans add folly of war, cruelty, ingratitude neglect. pessimistic. irrationality of lwas and costomes frustrate talent and desire.

sad ironic tone.

Thomas Hardy, poet

(POET) poetry is all feeling, feeling produces physical effects. “the pit of the stomach” is the source of poetry.

narraw range of subdued feeling by carfullly chosen words.

A. E. Houseman

(POET) the world has much good, but much less good than ill. pessimism. no hope of improvememnt or change. only making life bearable.

A. E. houseman (ps:oscar wilde wrote the importance of being earnest, this is added to this one because i wanted exactly 100 terms)