Violence against women and girls (VAW) is a global phenomena where more than one in three women worldwide beaten, coerced into sex or abused in her lifetime1. It is one of the main contributor to ill-health of women, especially to their sexual and reproductive health2. As per WHO definition, Violence is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that results or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, sexual or psychological harm.
3 It is a major obstacle to development and when it is against women in particular hinders progress in achieving development targets.4In most countries, Female sex work is either illegal or has an uncertain legal status (e.g. prostitution is not illegal, but procurement of sex workers in public is illegal).
therefore, Female Sex workers (FSWS) frequently regarded as easy targets for harassment and violence due to the reason emanate from them and their clients 4. Most violence against FSWs is a manifestation of gender inequality and discrimination directed towards women.Violence can be perpetrated by anyone including policemen, intimate partners and clients. In Adama and Mekele town in Ethiopia, nearly 60% and 75% of female sex workers respectively reported lifetime work-related violence5, 6. In Mombasa, Kenya, it was 79%, whereas 16% of female sex workers in Hunan, China, and 9% in Karnataka, India, reported work-related violence.6-10 A variety of risk factors associated with client-perpetrated physical and sexual violence against FSWs have been identified. Socio-economic characteristics, risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse are the most mentioned factors for sexual violence worldwide 5, 6, 11, 12.
A Randomized controlled trial study in Kenya and South Africa showed that Alcohol consumption reduction by FSWs has significant contribution on violence reduction13, 14. On the other hand, availability of drugs and alcohol in sex work establishments increases the likelihood of people becoming violent towards sex workers. 15 The higher rates of partner violence among commercial sex workers may be also linked to conflicts over condom use which increased risk of acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted infections16, 17. In Ethiopia the weighted HIV prevalence among FSWs is estimated to be at 23% while it is 1.2 % in the general population which magnifies the risk exposed to FSWs18, 19. In addition, it also discriminate sex workers from seeking health services16.Even though there was two studies conducted in Adama and Mekele city, generating such types of evidence-based data at a national level will help to promote more effective prevention.
Thus, the present study seeks to identify correlates of two types of client- perpetrate violence against FSWs: rape and physically violence. Identification of correlates that are unique to the various types of violence has the potential to inform the development of evidence-based prevention programs for this high-risk population. Moreover, effective strategies for the treatment of trauma may vary by the type of violence experienced.