Voltaire,I know you experienced a big earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal in 1755. I alsoknow that because of this huge tragedy you were seriously questioned theexistence of God.
I read the poem you wrote in 1756 – “The Disaster in Lisbon”,where you think there is a huge distance between man and the beast, as well asthe distance between man and higher level of nature. Then you deduce thedistance between God and all creatures is almost infinite. If there is such abig difference between species, then the chain of existence is not a full,regular step, so you do not think God exists. Do you have imagined that God hasevery possibility in the creation of the world? Let’s despite all the evil and misfortune inthe existing world, what is happening now is one of the best of allpossibilities, which illustrates God’s justice. Like that great earthquake,without the goodness of God, the earthquake may cause more death and loss.
Inthis world everything exists in the order of God’s hierarchy, from low to highto form a chain of existence. So, individually, there is indeed evil andimperfection in the world, these evil and imperfections serve the harmony andperfection of the whole world. This is the logical chain of this world with God.Without God’s goodness, there will be more misfortune in the world. If God doesnot have the power to eliminate misfortune, the despair will spread everywhere.
Hume, you did not try to tell uswhat that morality should be. You just tell us how moral judgment is made inreal life. You argue that we can not rely solely on reason to make moraljudgments. Our reason can only deal with the facts and draw conclusions fromit. Such rationality can not help us make a choice. Only our feelings orexperience can tell us which option is most worthy of our practice.
But do you knowexperience do help us to grow and mature at the same time, sometimes experiencelead our thinking into misunderstandings? Because every experience issubjective, but also unique. Due to different perspectives and differentworldviews, so the same experience may correspond to several differentoutcomes. Do you deny all the subjective things, it is easy to bringone-sidedness, limitations and blindness? If we fail to analyze and understandour own experiences from time to time, we will easily fall into empiricisterrors and lead to erroneous conclusions.
Only by conforming to the nature ofhuman beings and allowing them to freely develop their body and mind are realones, which means inner state, complete personality and spiritual freedom.