We may not realize it, but International Relations play a
massive part in our day to day lives. From the availability of products to the
presence of peace in our society, it all boils down to the relationship between
countries. A country with poor relations cannot provide it’s population
adequate means to gain a high standard of living, due to the lack of resources
caused by poor international relations. A prime example of this situation is
North Korea, whose population is unable to have any sort of freedom to express
For the purpose of this study, I was intrigued to find out
interesting facts between two prominent countries in the world, namely India
and USA. India and USA have usually had one of the most stable relationships,
except for a few years in the 20th century. One of the most unique
facts about this relationship is that USA is the world’s oldest constitutional
republic and India is the world’s largest republic, at present.
Increase in bilateral trade & investment, cooperation on global security
matters, inclusion of India in decision-making on matters of global governance
(United Nations Security Council), upgraded representation in
trade & investment forums (World Bank,
IMF, APEC), admission into multilateral export control regimes (Nuclear Suppliers Group, MTCR, Wassenaar Arrangement, Australia Group)
and joint-manufacturing through technology sharing arrangements have become key
milestones and a measure of speed and advancement on the path to closer
paper, we will dive deeper into the relations between the two countries to
provide an understanding to the readers about the various things that affect
international relations, as well as come up with solutions in order to ensure
the stability and growth of these relations.
ORIGIN AND NATURE
During the days of British Raj, India and USA did not have a
lot of interaction, and hence, they didn’t have much of a relationship. However,
things started to change when World War II entered the picture. In the war
against Japan, India became the main base for the American China Burma India
Theater (CBI). Serious tension erupted when President Franklin D. Roosevelt
demanded that India should be given freedom. This demand was immediately
rejected by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who even threatened to resign if
Roosevelt didn’t back out of his demand.
Post independence, India and USA didn’t have the best of
relations. This was mainly due to USA’s closeness with India’s rival, Pakistan.
Pakistan was part of the US-led made Western Bloc. Furthermore, during the cold
war, India adopted a non-alignment policy, meaning it will be a neutral
throughout the war. However, Indian relations with the Soviet Union were good.
The American officials were not happy with India’s stance during the Cold war,
and stated that neutrality is not an acceptable position. President Jawaharlal
Nehru was persuaded to join the diplomatic side, but he refused.
These relations took a turn in 1950, when India turned to
America for aid due to poor harvests in their country. For the first 12 years
post independence, USA provided India with 1.7 billion dollars, including 931
million dollars worth of food. In 1961,
the US pledged $1.0 billion in development loans, in addition to $1.3 billion of free food.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower was the first president to visit India. In
1961, President John F. Kennedy said
that he considered India to be an important strategic partner and counterweight
to the rise of Communist China. However, after the Kennedy assassination, India
and USA’s relations deteriorated slighty. Even though his successor Lyndon
Johnson wanted to maintain good relations with India, his main aim was to
strengthen ties with Pakistan, as well as weaken India’s growing army.
In the next presidency, the relationship between India and USA was at
its worst. President Richard Nixon established very strong ties with Pakistan,
providing it with financial and military aid, whereas Indian President Indira
Gandhi maintained close relations with the Soviet Union. In the late 1970s,
with the anti-Soviet Janata Party
leader Morarji Desai
becoming the Prime Minister, India improved its relations with the US, now led
by Jimmy Carter,
despite the latter signing an order in 1978 barring