Westland Poetry Unit

Poetry
Musical form of literature in which words may suggest multiple layers of meaning. These layers emerge through the structure of the poem, the sounds and meanings of words, and the speaker’s voice.

Stanzas
Poems consist of lines that may be organized into groups called _____.

Meter
The rhythmic pattern established by stresses, or beats, within each line of a poem.

Feet
Units that meter is measured in because apparently poetry has math involved #SokolWouldBeProud

Scanning
Marking each stressed syllable
with an accent (´) and each unstressed syllable
with a horseshoe symbol (?). Vertical lines (|) are
used to divide each line into feet. Most metrical
feet consist of one stressed and one or more
unstressed syllables.

Iambic tetrameter
Eight syllables, or four iambic feet.

Iambic pentameter
Ten syllables, or five iambic feet.

Enjambed
When a line breaks before completing a grammatical unit that can stand on its own.

Free verse
Poems that do not follow regular metrical patterns but do include rhythmic elements that are often created through the combinations of word sounds.

Rhyme
Repetition of vowel and consonant sounds at the ends of words.

End rhymes
Rhymes at the end of lines

Internal Rhymes
Rhymes that appear within lines.

Slant Rhyme
Words with similar, but not exact, end sounds, as in gill and shell, or understand and find.

Rhyme scheme
The pattern of end rhymes in a poem

Couplet
pair of rhyming lines, usually of the same meter and length. Usually expresses a single idea and often functions as a complete stanza.

Alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds

Assonance
repetition of vowel sounds within stressed syllables that end in different consonant sounds

Consonance
repetition of final consonant sounds in stressed syllables that have different vowel sounds

Onomatopoeia
actual or invented word that imitates the sound of what it names or describes

Voice
Emerges from a poem’s speaker

Speaker
Serves the same function as the narrator in a story

Tone
Attitude projected toward the subject and the audience

Denotation
Word’s definition. Not sure why we can’t just use the word “definition” but there you have it

Connotations
emotional associations a word evokes

Sensory details
appeal to sight, sound, hearing, taste, and touch; create imagery in the mind of the reader and evoke emotional associations

Similes
make direct comparisons between unlike things using “like” or “as”

Metaphors
make direct comparisons by stating that one thing is another.

Personification
gives human qualities to nonhuman things

Hyperbole
an extreme exaggeration

Formal verse
follows established patterns. Each standard poetic form has specific requirements regarding rhyme scheme, meter, and line or stanza structure.

Narrative poetry
tells a story and has a plot, characters, and a setting

Epic poem
long narrative poem about gods or heroes

Ballad
shorter poem that describes a single event and may be set to music; most include short stanzas and a refrain that repeats several times, like the chorus in a song.

Dramatic poetry
tells a story using a character’s own thoughts or spoken statements

Lyric poetry
expresses the feelings of a single speaker, using melodic language, imagery, rhythm, and sound devices to express emotions.

Odes
poems of praise that often exhibit complex metrical patterns, specific rhyme schemes, and stanzas of ten or more lines each.

Elegies
poems of loss that express both praise for the dead and an element of consolation

Sonnets
14-line poems in which each line consists of 5 iambic feet (iambic pentameter)

Petrarchan sonnet
8 line stanza with an abbaabba rhyme scheme that is followed by a 6 line stanza with a cdecde rhyme scheme

Shakespearean sonnet
3 stanzas of 4 lines apiece have an abab/cdcdc/efef rhyme scheme, followed by a 2 line stanza with a gg rhyme scheme.

Haiku
Form of Japanese poetry that consists of 3 unrhymed lines consisting of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. Often describe a scene from nature and use imagery to convey a single vivid emotion or impression.

Tanka
Form of Japanese poetry that has 5 unrhymed lines consisting of 5, 7, 5 7, and 7 syllables.Often describe a scene from nature and use imagery to convey a single vivid emotion or impression.