What highlighted how our minds adapt to our

What is psychology?  From since Psychology was first recognized as
a science in the public eye, the definition has varied immensely however they
all have the same concept. A basic definition of Psychology is; it is the
systematic and scientific study of behaviours and mental processes. Like
everything that is done, the science of Psychology has four main goals, which
are to initially, describe the various ways an organism behaves, then, explain
the causes of that organism’s behaviour, followed by, predicting how organisms
will behave in certain situations and lastly, controlling an organism’s
behaviour. For some reason, Psychology was not always recognized as a science;
but more of as a branch of Philosophy and persons who practiced Psychology were
not referred to as Psychologists, but as Philosophers.

An important person who was greatly involved in the recognition of
Psychology is Wilhelm Wundt, whom was a physician, physiologist, philosopher
and professor, is now considered as the founding father of Psychology due to
all of his contributions towards Psychology. Wilhelm Wundt dedicated the very
first science lab to Psychology. Along with this, Wundt was also recognized for
introducing one of the first schools of thought of Psychology known as the Structuralism
approach which is also the first historical approach to Psychology, is the
study of how even the simplest element, known as sensations and perceptions,
make up our conscious mental capabilities. This theory was used for many years
until its methods were found debatable. Following this was the Functionalist
school of thought which was introduced by philosopher William James. The
Functionalist approach was the study of the function, rather than the structure
of consciousness and it highlighted how our minds adapt to our changing environment.
Functionalism stresses on the role and purpose of behaviour in contrast to its
analysis and description. The Functionalist approach only lasted a short while however,
throughout this period it made great contributions to Psychology. Despite these
contributions, this approach was eventually criticized since it lacked precise
and fixed theories and research mechanisms. Following these two was the
Psychoanalysis school of thought which was introduced by Austrian Neurologist,
Sigmund Freud who has made multiple contributions to Psychology with his
theories and philosophies; so much so that these theories are still followed
and used to this day. Since his psychoanalytic theory is still being used to
this day, it has continued to evolve and progress throughout the years and as a
result, has no constant definition. Additional to these is the Gestalt approach
which focuses on how perception is more than the amount of its parts and
studied how sensations are accumulated into meaningful perceptual incidents.
This approach was introduced by Psychologist Max Wertheimer whose aim was to
develop a theory to argue against the structuralism approach and identify its
limitations. To this day, this approach is still used to depict how individuals
perceive objects.

Following the historical approaches, are the six modern approaches which
was introduced by various theorists in later decades. The six approaches are: –
the biological approach; this deals with examining the ways that our genes,
hormones and nervous system cooperate with our external environments to
influence our learning methods. personalities, memory, motivation, emotions and
other traits and abilities. Then there is the cognitive approach which focuses
on how we develop, collect and utilize information and how the stored
information stimulates what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe
and feel. Another approach is the behavioural approach which seeks to analyse
how an organism adapts new behaviours or alters existing ones depending on
whether events in their external environment rewards or punishes these
behaviours. Additionally, is the Psychoanalytic approach which is grounded on
the certainty that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of
later personality traits and psychological problems, emphasizing on conscious
and unconscious fears and desires, motivations and thoughts and how it
influences our behaviour. Furthermore, is the humanistic approach which
highlights that each individual has great liberty in guiding his or her future,
a large capability of achieving personal growth, a substantial amount of
essential value, and vast potential for self-attainment. Lastly, is the
cross-culture approach which gears it focus to studying the encouragement of
ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning.

  To conclude, although Psychology was considered as a philosophical
understanding in the 1800’s, it is of my belief that the theories all hold
common interest in Psychology, although they differ in various ways. As they
all target the same psychological issues of the mind’s manipulation; Be it in
terms of structure, function, or behaviour in order to acquire the knowledge of
how we do the things we do, why we do the things we do and what is the reaction
to the theories of learning and behaviour.