Whitman and Dickinson Lauer

Free verse
is poetry written without concern for regular rhyme schemes and meter.

Catalog
is a list of things, people, or events used for effect.

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Cadence
is the balanced, rhythmic flow of poetry or oratory. Cadence is created by the pattern of sounds and phrases rather than the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Parallel structure and sound devices like alliteration, assonance, and onomatopoeia create cadence.

Alliteration
is the repetition of similar consonant sounds. (examples in Whitman’s Song of Myself – #10, line 6, s sound; #10, line 20, c sound; #33, line 8, l sound; #52, line 13, f sound; #52, line 14, f sound)

Assonance
is the repetition of similar vowel sounds. (examples in Whitman’s Song of Myself – “runaway slave came” #10, line 15; “lie in the night” #33, line 31)

Onomatopoeia
is the use of words whose sounds imitate their meanings. (examples in Whitman’s Song of Myself – “crackling” #10, line 16; “whizz” #33, line 47; “yawp” #52, line 3)

Parallel structure
is the repetition of same or similar words, phrases, clauses, or sentences for effect. (examples in Whitman’s Song of Myself – repetition of And #10 lines 18-22; of How #33 lines 3-9; of Again #33 lines 39-41; of I #52 lines 2-16)

Images
appeal to the senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell).

Symbols
represent or stand for something else.

Metaphors
implicitly compare something to something else.

Meter
is the measured arrangement or words in a line of verse.

Exact rhyme
occurs when two or more words have syllables that share identical sounds. (examples in Dickinson’s Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church – Home / Dome (lines 2, 4); Wings / sings (lines 6, 8); long / along (lines 10, 12)

Slant rhyme
occurs when two or more words have close, but not exact, rhyming sound. (examples in Dickinson’s Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church – Chorister / Orchard (lines 3, 4); Surplice / Church (lines 5, 7)

End rhyme
is the repetition of sounds that occur at the ends of line. (examples in Dickinson’s Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church – Home / Dome (lines 2, 4); Wings / sings (lines 6, 8); long / along (lines 10, 12)

Internal rhyme
is the repetition of sounds occurring within lines. (examples in Dickinson’s Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church – Chorister / Orchard (lines 3, 4)

Rhyme scheme
is the pattern of rhymes in a poem.

Paradox
occurs when a statement is made that is seemingly contradictory but nonetheless true.

Irony
occurs when an incongruity exists between what is expected and what actually happens.

Personification
occurs when inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form.

Caesura
is a pause or break in a line of verse

From Song of myself:
“The twinges that sting like needles his legs and neck, the murderous buckshot and the bullets”
Alliteration

“I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world”
Onomatopoeia

“I effuse my flesh in eddies”
Assonance

“And gave him a room that enter’d from my own, and gave him some coarse clean clothes”
Parallel Structure and Alliteration

The kite took flight in the summer breeze.
Exact, Internal Rhyme

A breath of wind blew across the bend in the road.
Slant, Internal Rhyme

Every day before supper, / by eating a donut, / I’d bother my mother, / who’d cry, “Do not!”
Slant Rhyme and End Rhyme

Emily Dickinson
Born in 1830…Only 7 of her poems are published… Her poems were written to people who had them published… Invented her own style for her poems

Whalt Whitman
Born in 1819… First poet speak for all of the United States… Invented free verse, the poetry of no rhyme, and rhyme that had dominated the last century.

What did Whitman see poetry as?
Saw poetry as organic—growing naturally like flowers and other plants grow.

At first, What did people think about his poetry?
Most people who saw his poetry found it too weird, and many would not even consider it poetry.

Whitman’s first poem
Leaves of grass…
Whitman paid for it entirely by himself because, like Dickinson’s poems, publishers thought they were too odd to take a costly chance on.

Who did Whitman send a free copy of “Leaves of grass” to?
Ralph Waldo Emerson
His support caused others to rethink Whitman’s poems.

How many times was Leaves of Grass republished?
9

In Whitman’s poem, “I Hear America Singing”, what is the catalog?
A list of workers

In Whitman’s poem, “I Hear America Singing”, who is singing?
The singing is sounds of work

What is Whitman’s poem, “Song of Myself” about?
It shows all the diverse people in the world

What is the tone in “Song of Myself”?
Powerful

“Beat! Beat! Drums” by Walt Whitman is about
-War
-The Images all describe a disturbance
in serenity
-Drums and bugles are symbols of
war

What is Dickinson’s poem, “I taste a liquor never brewed” about?
She is talking about a spiritual intoxication-she
is drunk on nature. She uses that
extended metaphor throughout the
poem.

In “Some keep the Sabbath going to Church” , what does it show about Dickinson’s religious views?
-She had very unorthodox view but rebelled against
organized religion.
– She claims that all these people are hoping to get
to Heaven and that she’s already
on her way there saying she is at
mass all the time

“Much Madness is divinest Sense” is
A paradox

What is Dickinson’s message in “Much Madness is divinest Sense” ?
We live in a majority society ….what we say makes sense is actually crazy
Saying if you agree your sane but if
you disagree your not

What do the chains represent in “Much Madness is divinest Sense” ?
Chains figuratively by confined by chains of society.

“I heard a fly buzz when I died” is about
How she was ready to die but then it was interrupted
with a buzz. The fly got in the way which is
referred to as the devil

When the “windows close” in “I heard a fly buzz when I died”….
Heaven is closed

In Dickinson’s poem, “Heart! We will forget him!”
She is having a difficulty of over coming a broken
heart demanding for her heart to
forget.

In, “Because I could not stop for death” Death is personified as
A kind gentleman

In, “Because I could not stop for death” Dickinson uses
Verbal irony with sarcasm

In these lines from “Because I could not stop for death”… It is describing…

We passed the School, where Children strove
At Recess—in the Ring—
We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain—
We passed the Setting Sun

Her passing through her life
Childhood…
Middleaged…
Elderly….

In these lines from “Because I could not stop for death”… It is describing…
Or rather—He passed Us—
The Dews drew quivering and chill—
For only Gossamer,, my Gown—
My Tippet—only Tulle
How she is dressed inappropriately and not ready to die.

In this stanza from”Because I could not stop for death” Dickinson is at her….

We paused before a House that seemed
A Swelling of the Ground—
The Roof was scarcely visible—

Grave

O Captain ! My Captain! is about
Lincoln’s sudden death

The theme in O Captain! My Captain is
is the true love the country has for Lincoln and the sadness of his
death and how they come together to mourn over his death

O Captain! My Captain is an
Elegy- poem about a sorrowful/mournful subject usually about death

In O Captain! My Captain! The Captain is
Lincoln

In O Captain! My Captain! The trip is
The civil war

In O Captain! My Captain! The ship is
The United States

In O Captain! My Captain! The victory
Is the end of slavery