Wireless Network Based AutomaticIrrigation System K.
Bhagavan1, Ankit Kumar Verma2, V.Akhil3, AmritaSingh4 Departmentof Computer Science and Engineering KLEF, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, India [email protected]@gmail.com2 [email protected]@gmail.com4 ABSTRACT- – The Internet of thingsgenerally as IoT is a concept of sharing the network between different networkobjects through internet connectivity. The main objective of this project is tohelp the agriculturists during the irrigation process. IoT plays a major rolein the grazing fields.
The Smart irrigation system minimizes the wastage ofwater and helps farmers for successful usage of the water and besides the cropdevelopment. In the proposed paper we are describing an efficient system ofirrigation to minimize the consumption of water in the. This in turn grants aremote control mechanism to monitor the process of irrigation. This irrigationprocess is automated only if the moisture & Temperature levels of thefield falls below the reference value. The notifications that are retrieved bythe sensor are sent to farmers mobile at a given period of time. The farmerscan get SMS about the condition of the soil (whether soil is dry or wet) basedthe dryness of the soil. The farmers can easily operate the motor and caneasily monitor all the operation in the fields.
This intelligent Irrigationsystem’s efficiency is greater than 90% when compared with traditional method.Hence the designedsystem will provide the complete readings of the content of humidity in thesoil and the timely records the temperature as well. This recorded data helps the farmers to inspect the proper functioningof the system and to supply the water into the field in the proper proportions. Keywords- SoilMoisture, Temperature, Humidity, sensors, API, Internet ofThings.1.INTRODUCTION As India being an agricultural country and manypeople depend exclusively on agriculture, it is absolutely important toincrease production of crop. Now it’s the time to get the rapid improvement ofhighly specialized greenhouse vegetables in the food production mechanism asthe demand of food has been increasing.
This method provides a major benefitand ease of production for the countries like India, where the major part ofthe economy is based on the irrigation. The above method gives maximum profitand also saves time and human effort. The climate conditions do not give muchimpact as the moisture level of the soil can be adjusted. The objective of thiswork is to control the flow of water to the fields through the mobile phone.These entire processes can be implemented using microcontrollers& sensors. The moisture sensor is used to detect the moisture in the soil.
Those sensors are connected to the microcontrollers which are ARM-based and arealso helpful in the data processing. ARM processors arewidely used in the many kinds of electronic devices. As ARM being a RISCprocessor (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) it needs only fewer instructionswhile compared to other processors..
The smaller size of ARM processors is veryeffective in terms of power consumption and also reduces instruction complexityand increases the performance.The primary goal of this project is to send a shortmessaging service (SMS) for farmers as regards the irrigation of divergentlands for on and off conditions. This system further supports the mineraldeposit management decision which helps to determine the execution time of the process. Automated irrigation system contains anapplication which is automated with a devices present in the soil, and does notinvolve manual effort. This expected system helps to control and, therefore, tominimize the workload of the farmer by irrigating the ground respecting waterrequirements. We added sensors to monitor humidity, temperature and content ofmoisture in the soil.
As part of this system, we can apply water-solublefertilizers along with drip irrigation. Therefore the proposed system alsoreduces the use of water and fertilizers, since it applies fertilizers andwater directly to the root area, which in turn saves the usage of fertilizersand water significantly. 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT Theprimary purpose of this work is to minimize the problems and disadvantagesfaced by all farmers in the agriculture sectors. There have been multipleproblems that cause soil fertility and crop productivity to decrease.
Anotherimportant problem faced by the farmers during irrigation is the availability ofwater for irrigation. In India there are many regions where sufficient amountof water is not available for the farmers during the cultivation of crop. Thiscauses farmers to stop cultivation. Because of these issues, most the farmersare committing suicide. As there is huge increase in the population in everyregion of the country, probably there will be huge demand of food that isproportional to the agriculture. Now we can strengthen capital based on thetheory that the “productivity of existing land does not decrease”. The CSWI(crop water stress index) was existed everywhere before the past three decades.To tell us when to irrigate with drip irrigation CSWI was packaged withsurrounding air temperatures, climatic pressure and infrared temperaturemeasurements values.
Different types of communication mechanisms have been implemented toprovide the communication between the elements in the network and networkitself. Zigbee, WI-FI, Bluetooth, RF are the existing Communicationtechnologies that are used in the sensor network. RF technology is chosenrather than other technologies because it provides the low cost and lower energyconsumption. The smart internet-based irrigation program is the solution to allthe problems mentioned above. 3. LITERATURE SURVEY There is an in-numerous amount of analyses and development in thegrazing path and it is growing together at great speed. Possible irrigationbecomes a space for professional analysis within the IoT.
In the proposedsystem we are focusing specifically on the problem in the field of cultivationThe problems includes controlling the amount of water supplied to the crop, monitoringsoil moisture and soil pH value. Here, we are also considering the fertility ofthe soil. We can implement the soil moisture device within the soil to notice thehumidity inside the ground.
But as a primary measure we should always have alot of information on the types of soil and also the amount of water requiredfor this. With this in mind, we will induce these sensors. Nowadays, the mostappropriate and the better method to irrigate the field are to use dripirrigation. The above method is extremely convenient as it reduces water wasteand increases soil fertility. Another major problem faced during the irrigationis soil erosion caused due to due to the traditional approach; there are manypossibilities for soil erosion. Another appropriate parameter that will beprojected for irrigation is the evapotranspiration rate of the plant. Shortenedas ET, evaptranspiration, is the base transpiration speed of the plant thatbelieves in humidity, temperature, plant density,wind,speed,etc.
.3. PROPOSED SYSTEM The proposed system- “crop monitoring in wirelesssensor networks” is useful for agricultural workers to maintain accuracy inagriculture. The application helps to control the entire company in a remotelocation via IOT. The application working in the sensor network consists ofwide verity of nodes. The sensors nodes are fixed either at the root of thecrop or inside the soil for varied purposes like collecting the values of theambient and soil parameters.
These parameters include light, humidity, soilmoisture and temperature. The application that monitors crop contains twosensors: for example an image sensor anda compiler of environmental parameters. These sensors get information on thecrop, soil condition, extract the readings of recorded soil moistures etc. andall this data is copied to the cloud storage connected to the database through wireless transmission. This information is stored in the primarydatabase and then transferred to the Internet which is then received by theusers. All the processing is done at the server side only. The Internetapplication is configured to analyze the received data and to check thehumidity and temperature threshold. The process of decision making is done onthe side server for automatic irrigation of the rig.
If the recorded soilmoisture is less than a specific threshold, the motor will be switched ON andif the threshold increases, the motor switches OFF. This approach can also beused in greenhouses where light intensity can be controlled and automated. Thecomplete design of the system is shown in Fig. 1. In the given diagram we canclearly seen how the components of the system is interconnected to each otherthrough wireless connection.
All the required sensors are established andconnected with the Arduino Microcontroller. It is very important to maintainthe proper security measures to the Databases which holds the record of the allthe data such as the temperature, soil moisture and also the water level which are later given to the user through the SMS. There should besome Data Processing and Decision Making in the Databases and also automationin irrigation. 5.
WORKING PRINCIPLE The work profile is implementing an automaticirrigation system together with the detection of soil moisture using soilmoisture sensor. The function of the entire model is as follows: The soil’smoisture is measured with the help of the soil moisture sensor which isinterposed inside the soil. The soil moisture device is useful for measuringsoil conduction. As we all know, wet soil can have a larger conduction of drysoil, the comparator is it integrated in it. The voltage generated by the teethand also the voltage of the threshold zone unit is compared. If thecomparator’s output is high, then we need to consider that the groundconditions are dry. The sensors send all its data to the microcontrollerthrough which the sensors are connected.
Thepurpose of the microcontroller is to monitor the data received by the sensors(output of sensors) without interruption. If the amount of moisture recorded onthe ground is greater than the edge, the microcontroller displays a messagethat mentions the constant data and the motor also switches off. Once theoutput obtained from the soil moisture device is recorded bit high, then itends up by displaying the message as soil moisture is a smaller amount.Therefore, it shows the corresponding knowledge and also the output of themicrocontroller in the alphanumeric screen, which is connected to the bottom ofthe semiconductor unit. When the semiconductor unit is turned on, it can bepromoted in such a way that the relay coil induces power and starts the motor.The semiconductor diode is activated to serve as an associated indicator. Everysoil has different thresholds of soil moisture.
Since the sensor continuouslydetects the soil moisture the motor is automatically turned on/off when thethreshold is low or high. This system is also designed to avoid the riskoccurring to the plants when the soil is not getting the correspondingthreshold of moisture and if the soil is being wet frequently. Fig.3Block diagram of Irrigation control system 5.1 GSM module: GSM/GPRS Modules are most popularly used in embedded systemsas communication module .
The GSM module is a device which is used in manyof the IoT application. It is like a modem which works on the sim card and onlyworks after taking the subscription from that particular mobile operator. This Module provides the communication between amicrocontroller and itself. Fig.4-GSM module Fig.2 Wireless Sensor Unit 5.2 Humidity / Soil moisture sensorThe Soil Moisture Sensor’s purpose is to measure thecontent of water in the soil. This sensor serves widely in the sectors likeHorticulture, Agricultural sciences, Biology and botany.
This sensor regains itsstrength through capacitance in order to measure the content of water presentin the soil. The farmer simply arranges this sensor in the soil. Oncethe sensor starts functioning it returns the volume of water present in thatrespective soil in the units of percentage. In both large and small scale modelingof agriculture, the working of the system depends on content of moisture in thesoil. Crops always depend on the water moisture available near the roots ratherthan the precipitation occurrence. We use soil moisture sensor to accomplishthe purpose of getting moisture information which is the key to the system. TheSoil moisture sensor has two terminals which can be used to pass electronsusing soil moisture as the medium.
The moisture in the soil is determined bythe ratio of the electrons and accordingly the motor is turned ON and OFF forthe irrigation. Fig.5-Soil Moisture sensor 5.3 ZigBee Module: In this current communication world, there are many highspeed data communication standards available, but none of them were able tomeet the communication standards of sensors and control devices.The communication standards which are at high data rate needs lower latency andlow level of energy even at low-bandwidths. Soin-order to overcome the difficulties faces due to communication standards thatare of high data rate we used the Zigbee technology in this system.
Zigbeetechnology consumes low power and is excellent in characteristics and also thisserves as a key point to use Zigbee technology in most of the embedded systems. Zigbee Module comes under the802.11 standards.
The range in which the Zigbee module is operated lies in therange of 2.4GHz frequency bandwidth. Zigbee module can also be used for its onegood property that is it has the power saving mechanism. It can be used forall the different classes of devices.
Various transmission operations likebroadcast can be done by using this and the standard topology used is multiplestar topologies. Fig.6.
ZigBee Module 5.4 Motor: Motor isused to indicate the on/off state of pump when soil is wet/dry. It iscontrolled by microcontroller as programmed. 5.
5 LCD: This is the first interfacing example for theParallel Port. It is used to display the current statistic on the screen. 5.6 Power Supply: Powersupply of 12V is used for running this hardware system. Reference Voltage:It is the ideal definedvoltage. 6. ADVANTAGES Improves growth Saves water Discourages weeds Adaptable Saves time Reduces the manual effort for closing or opening valves time-to-time This system adapts the new technologies and also facilitates the advanced irrigation system that reduces complex manual effort This system can be operated at all the time to reduce the wastage of water.
This system optimizes the consumption of energy by starting and stopping the irrigation process accordingly. Thesystem is absolutely effective in power consumption & the component used inthe hardware. This model is more helpful in minimizing the usage of water inthe fields so that there is an availability of water every time for otherpurposes like electricity generation, our daily needs etc.
By implementing thissystem in the countries which are rich in agricultural domain shows the majorbenefit. GSM technology helps user tocontrol the motor remotely from any place within the range of the usedcomponents by simply sending SMS. This system mainly reduces the work of farmersince lot of manual work is being done by them in the farms now-a-days.
Thusthis model will give lots of relief to the farmers therefore it can reduce theeffort of humans. Since the model is eco-friendly and it has variouscharacteristics such as: The farmer can use this automatic system or he canoperate the facilities manually by switching between the two modes.. Sincethere are different methods for each agriculture field all over the India thereforethe system should be able to do the same work in everywhere. Since this modelis convenient for all types of irrigation & to all climatic conditions. 7. RESULTS & DISCUSSION This automaticirrigation system is proposed to introduce the technology of embedded systemsinto the agricultural sector. The designed system provides the readings ofcontent of humidity present in the soil and also records the atmosphere’stemperature.
This system reduces the manual effort done by the farmers andmakes the farmers work easy. It overrides continues monitoring of irrigation bythe farmer with the automatic irrigation process. This makes the farmers tosave effort, time and also produces more crops. As a result this systemincreases the economic condition of the farmers and gives comparatively moreprofit. 8. CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE Our work in the future is to improve the topologyscheme to make all the nodes communicate with each other, as well as to improvethe wireless sensors technologies in the domain of communication through a moreefficient software and hardware design. In particular it is an intelligentdesign of controlling the irrigation system. It is mainly based on wirelessnetworks of sensors and takes the real time humidity measures as the input.
Furthermore, the software architecture can be designed and implemented thedesign and implementation for the intelligent monitoring and controllingsystem. This requires infinite improvements to be met with the diverse needs ofthe real world. The project can be extended to greenhouses monitoring of thetemperature and making the system work automatically to modify the changes inthe temperature. This all principles can be extended to create a fullyautomated agricultural area joining this framework with downpour watercollecting an immense quantity of water Holdings could an opportunity with makesaved. By implementing this result, we canimprove the traditional form of the crop irrigation program in various regionsof India and provide an efficient way to grow crops hence reducing suicidecount of farmers.
8. REFERENCES 1. N. Shah and I.
Das, “PrecisionIrrigationSensor Network Based Irrigation”, a book on Problems, Perspectivesand Challengesof Agricultural Water Management, IIT Bombay, India, 2 Haley.M,M.D.Dukes.2007.Evaluation sensorbased residential irrigation applications.
ASAB 2007. 3 S.S.Belsare,”DesignandImplementation of Automated IrrigationSystem ZIGBEE and GSM”,International Journalof scientific research and management(IJSRM), Vol.3, No.6, Pp 4 Enhancing water use efficiency inirrigated agriculture. Agron. J, Howell, T.
A. (2001). 5 A Real time implementation of aGSM based Automated Irrigation Control System using drip IrrigationMethodology, Veena, Divyak, Ayush, Akhouri.
6 Impact of the Automatic control of closed circuits railgun irrigationsystem on yellow corn growth and yield (International Journal of AdvancedResearch (2013), Mansour, H.A, You sifEl-Melhem. 7 Lachhabpc-based automated dripirrigation system (Vol. 5 No.
01 January 2013), m. guerbaoui, y. el afoul, a.
ed-dahhak 8 Performance evaluation of adeveloping greenhouse climate control with a computer system. AMSE JournalModelling, Eddahhak, A. Lachhab, A.; Ezzine, L.
; Bouchikhi, B. (2007) 9 A computer controlled raingun irrigation system for container plantproduction Hort Technology, Gonzalez, R.A.; Struve, D.K.; Brown L.C.
(1992). 10 Comparison among differentirrigation systems for deficit- irrigated transgenic and non transgenic yellowcorn in the Nile Valley?, AbouKheira A. A. (2009).