Work-family conflict (WFC) is an advancing concept within modern society, predominantly due to present-day development, technological enhancement, and greater societal demands. It has been evident in the majority of adult men and women that work interferes with their familial responsibilities (Glavin and Schieman, 2012). Referring to discordance or incongruence between one’s work and household role demands, the relationship of work and family has been identified as a bi-directional construct, where work duties impact on family responsibilities and work can reinforce family welfare and positive aspects of family life can fit into one’s workplace. Subsequently, a concept of work-life combination should depict more flexible boundaries where individuals have a greater influence on the definition of their work and non-work lives. The choice of plan is to handle the work-family conflict as dependent on the recognized differences between the two domains, on the strength of the borders, which are resolved by their permeability and flexibility (Saucan et al., 2015).
The concept collects, globally, widespread attention and is widely discussed worldwide. In modern society, beyond human resources management, substantial research projects in this area have been executed, with several studies reporting divergent and, at times, contradictory findings on the consequences and potency of work-family conflict. The overlap in time and place between traditional family and work roles may, additionally, introduce further opportunities for work-family conflict to manifest in people’s daily lives (Yili Liu & Lina Zhou., 2017). WFC is defined as the pressure produced by somewhat opposing demands from family and work domains, where the strain from both domains are ill-assorted in some regard (Restubog et al, 2011).
The conflict between the two domains is provoked due to the difference in work and family demographic trends around the globe, including an increase of mothers and their underage children engaging with the labour force, introducing further complications such as child labour and a rapid rise in elder care demands due to an aging population; and an increase in men’s involvement with familial care and obligatory demands, particularly within developed Western countries, such as the United States of America (Kossek & Malaterre, 2013). This affects a large portion of society, as, even unmarried individuals and those without children would, most likely, have a complaint of some form of work and family conflict disturbing their lives (Casper, Weltman, & Kwesiga, 2007). The construct is a part of the work-family conflict image – the reality that the roles in work may impede family management and alternative personal life events and interests (Kossek, 2016). For numerous employees, work-family conflict is a key factor – however, is rephrased to the term “work-life conflict” to illustrate the various additional non-work demands in one’s life that are not confined to those involving family and kin (Wilson & Baumann, 2015). There have been many work-family researches based on a conflict situation, observing the opposing demands of work and family and inapt predicaments caused by time, behaviour, or strain (Ruppanner, 2013).
In recent years, researchers alternatively measured work-family conflict, in a much simpler way. The conflict that occurs when work is disrupted by family tasks would be recorded and, then, researchers would identify the double nature of work–family conflict by evaluating both possible directions of the intervention of work with family and, also, that of family with work (Hytti et al., 2015).
However, in other countries, a number of researchers indicated that work–family conflict could positively affect turnover intention. Many of these researchers also stated that there were seemingly neither direct nor indirect relationships between work–family conflict and turnover intention (Armstrong et al., 2015). Nevertheless, regardless of employment, both work and family responsibilities are a complication for many workers in modern days, both fields demanding contrary roles from individuals. Hence, when these roles are mutually discrepant, inevitably, inter-role con?ict arises, either in the form of work-to-family con?ict or family-to-work con?ict (Annink et al., 2016).
As self-employment, generally, enables workers to combine income, financial pliability and control over their work and childcare, workers, particularly women and/or parents, often believe that self-employment would, potentially, ease the pressure of combining work and family (Sullivan and Meek 2012). The importance of preventing WFC is acknowledged by the European Union; therefore, the nation has set fundamental guidelines for support. However, although governments are increasingly giving attention to reconciling paid employment and parenting, research shows those arrangements for the self-employed lag behind those for employees; the two differ across European countries (Annink et al. 2015). It has been identified that if job demands are excessive, conflicts – which are negatively associated with the balance between work and life – occur amid work and family life. On the contrary, it was also found that the level of job control hardly varies among the self-employed – this is not unpredicted, however, as job control is related to an individual’s management and performance, which can be seen as inherent to self-employment (Nordenmark et al. 2012).
The life-course viewpoints provide a distinctive framework and exceptional structure, for example, recorded time, advances, or connected lives to inspect work-family struggle. Contemporary specialists are less likely to spend their entire profession and frequently progress in one association, and feel secure in their occupations than labourers from earlier decades. However, they will most probably customise their timing of retirement, seek after adaptable work plans, for example, decreased workload and timework, and pursue balance amidst work and family (Greenhaus and Kossek, 2014). One principle methodological issue is the constant overlap of concepts, such as the work-family struggle and work-life struggle issues mentioned earlier on in this dissertation. Work-family strife and work-family adjust are additionally intently similar ideas. While the elements of agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with work-family conflict in a negative manner, extraversion and openness to experience were, in fact, not. (Kossek, Ruderman, Braddy, and Hannum 2012).
Work-Family Conflict is a critical line of request in authoritative conduct and human asset administration research. The subject is applicable to the registering and correspondence field not only because modern communication technologies allow for more integration of work and family roles than ever recorded initially, but since late advances in processing innovation offer better approaches to react to and comprehend work-family struggle (Maertz and Boyar 2016). For everyone, work and family are two vital domains; work family strife is experienced when there is struggle between conflicts in other areas. Work family strife can be characterized into time and strain based categories, alongside others. In particular, the time committed to and the strain created by work makes it difficult to satisfy necessities of family and vice versa (Tausczik and Pennebaker, 2010)
Work family strife has been observationally connected with representatives’ activity and life disappointment, poor physical and psychological wellbeing, and rising intentional turnover rates and work pressure (Cheng et al., 2015). While it is clearly of interest to know whether between part clashes are associated with health, it is of equivalent significance to explore potential precursors of work and family conflicts in employees with spinal cord damage and their accomplices with care giving obligation. There are two specific aspects that may have a part within the sight of contentions, to be specific, the measure of engagement in gainful activities (e.g., paid work, giving care) and financial conditions (e.g., level of income, education). Conflicts amongst work and family life are, most likely, a result of an interchange between one’s own partners’ cooperation in beneficial activities. For instance, the cooperation of the two individuals from a couple in paid works may exacerbate inter-role conflicts as both have less time assets for family life (Fekete et al., 2017). Substantial exertion has gone toward endeavouring to comprehend the antecedents and elements of work family struggle.
Research indicates singular traits and experience impact view of work and family strife, with two vast ramifications for the dynamics of work family struggle. Diverse individuals may react to a similar work family strife in an unexpected way, and people may respond to a similar work family conflict differently over time through their endeavours to adapt to work family struggle and their shifting circumstances (Carr et al., 2014). The level of working women is expanding in everyday life, which, in turn, improves the requirement of women in both the confidential and the outside world. Therefore, naturally, the contention appears, when they attempt to adjust differences between work and family. In the event that these parts are not managed, work and family conflict arises, which creates trauma between employees. Representatives attempt to fulfil the expanding work requirements and, in addition, familial obligations as well. Work and family struggle is identified with pressure and mental strain (Poelmans as cited to in Ragles, 2016). Most investigates in the region of work family struggle and hierarchical role stretch is conveying in dissimilar gatherings of occupations through students, educators and police. Role stress impacts job fulfilment among the workers (Armstrong et al., 2015).
Types of work-family conflict –
Work family strife can exist in two ways forms; work can meddle with family (WIF) and family can meddle with work (FIW). Carlson et al. (1998) recommended six measurements of work-family struggle. WIF and FIW both have three sub dimensions; time, strain, and conduct based types of contention. Time-based conflict occurs when the time demands of one role are poorly coordinated with those of another. The second form is strain-based clash, which commences when strain in one area impacts with the other domain. The third form, conduct based clash, often happens when behavioural patterns designated to one area are arrogate in another (Aisyah et al., 2011).