World History – Chapter 13 – The Renaissance and Reformation (Semester 2)

humanism
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on eduction and the classics

humanities
study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome

Francesco Petrarch
an early Renaissance humanist, poet and scholar; assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts in monasteries and churches; enabled the works of Cicero, Homer and Virgil to become know to Western Europeans

Florence
a city in the Tuscany region of northern Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance

patron
a person who provides financial support for the arts

perspective
artistic technique used to give paintings and drawings a three-dimensional effect

Leonardo da Vinci
dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work; paintings has realism; Mona Lisa, Last Supper; experimented with new types of paint;

Michelangelo Buonarroti
sculptor, engineer, painter, architect and poet; “melancholy genius” his works reflect life long spiritual and artistic struggles; marble master pieces such as David – David and Goliath;Pietá; Pietá shows the sorrow of Mary as she cradles her dead son Jesus; series of murals that decorate the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel in Rome – took 4 years to complete; talented architect also- design dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome- many structures modeled off it like the US Captial building

Raphael Michaelangelo
artistic talent and sweet and gracious nature; painted blending Christian and classic styles; know for Madonna painting – tender portrayal of mother of Jesus; The School of Athens is a painting showing an imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientist

Baldassare Castiglione
wrote The Book of the Courtier – describes the manners, skills, learning and virtues that a member of the court should have – well educated, well-mannered aristocrat who mastered many field, from poetry to music to supports; ideal male – active, good at games, not a gambler, plays music, knows literature and history; ideal woman – offers a balance to men, graceful, kind, lively, reserved, beautiful

Niccolò Machiavelli
wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power; wrote The Prince, looked at at real rulers in an age of ruthless power; told rulers to use whatever means necessary to achieve their goal

Johann Gutenberg
printed first Bible on a printing press; printing press transformed Europe – was hand written prior; more books so more readers

Flanders
a region that included parts of present day northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands; was an important industrial and financial center of northern Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance

Albrecht Dürer
German painter; artists studied under Italian masters for Renaissance; called “Leonardo of the North”; applied painting techniques to engraving

engraving
art for in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints

vernacular
everyday language of ordinary people

Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch priest and humanist; scholar; wrote texts on a number of subjects and produced a new Greek edition of the Bible

Sir Thomas More
friend of Erasmus; English humanist pressed for social reform; in book Utopia describes a society where men and women live in peace

utopian
idealistic or visionary, usually used to describe a perfect society

William Shakespeare
figure of Renaissance literature; he wrote 37 plays that are still performed; more 1700 words in first play